Reports Available - Abstracts
Mitgation and Major Projects
Myra A. Hughes, Jonathan P. Kerr and Albert M. Pecora with a contribution by Susan E.Long. Edited by Myra A. Hughes and Charles M. Niquette.
The Corey site (46PU100) was the second of three sites excavated in advance of the Huntington District Corps of Engineers' Winfield Locks and Dam Replacement Project, Putnam County, West Virginia. The site was situated on the north bank of the Kanawha River, just south of the town of Eleanor, West Virginia. The multicomponent Corey site spans the Early Archaic through the late Late Woodland time periods, but extensive archeological investigations have demonstrated that the site was most intensively used/occupied during the Late Archaic time period. The data derived from Corey are compared to other sites of similar age in the region and contribute to our understanding of Late Archaic subsistence and settlement patterns in the lower Kanawha River Valley.
CRAI PUBNO: 91-71 PAGES: 249 FIGURES: 35 TABLES: 59 PLATES: 9
Paul P. Kreisa, R. Berle Clay, Charles M. Niquette and Gary D. Crites. Edited by Charles M. Niquette.
Between December 1988 and June 1989, Cultural Resource Analysts' personnel completed excavations at the Andalex Village (15HK22) in Hopkins County, Kentucky. Situated on a limestone bluff overlooking the Pond River, a tributary of the Green River, the site consisted of a stockaded Mississippian community with a single mound. Archeological remains recovered at the site suggest a continuing but sporadic use of the locality from the terminal Paleo-Indian period to approximately A.D. 1400. The earliest substantial component at Andalex is a late Woodland, Yankeetown phase component. This occupation could not be recognized except in secondary contexts. The Late Woodland use of the site probably dates before 1000A.D., perhaps one to two hundred years earlier. Mississippian use of the site was represented by four different stages of mound construction, only two of which were found to be reasonably intact. A premound, early Mississippian occupation appears to have evolved out of the Late Woodland and dated to ca. A.D. 1000-1100. A subsequent early Mississippian occupation (circa A.D. 1250) followed. It was responsible for the initial stage of mound construction at the site. Important decorated ceramic types associated with this early stage of mound construction include two new provisional types (Pond River, var. Hopkins and var.McLean) and other types that appear to be related to the "Caborn-Welborn" area at the mouth of the Wabash River. After a period of abandonment, use of the site was terminated by a later Mississippian complex that was responsible for Stage 2 of mound construction, capped by structure 1. Two additional mound stages could not be dated but are believed to have occurred sometime after A.D. 1350 . This final occupation of Andalex represents terminal Mississippian for the Pond River vicinity in the "Angel" tradition.
Excavation of Andalex has revealed that the nature of the local polity probably changed through time. The village seems to have been first built without a mound, probably as a collection of houses surrounded by a stockade. It is suggested that marked status differences were lacking in the founding community, particularly evidence for a chiefdom level of political organization. The latter would be most noticeable in the construction of a mound. As an early Mississippian village, Andalex was probably not established as the result of the action of chiefly authority. Nevertheless, the site was later transformed when a mound was started within the stockaded area. It appears that the mound and the political authority that it suggests, was grafted on to the existing community. This implies that the region witnessed not simply the development of a Mississippian political system linking together all Mississippian occupation, but the competition between systems. Two details indicate that the political system at Andalex changed in character through time. First, Structure 2, on top of the initial mound, was abandoned and apparently fell into decay. This suggests that the mound went out of use in this community as the locus of status differentiation and political power. This may mean that the village was abandoned. The subsequent mound stage had Structure 1 on top of it. This structure was substantially larger in size and demonstrated episodes of rebuilding. This structure, and the mound stage on which it was built, as well as the two stages which followed, represent yet another political system that drew this village into its orbit, perhaps by reoccupying a Mississippian village that had been abandoned.
CRAI PUB NO: 91-03 PAGES: 241 FIGURES: 28 TABLES: 27 PLATES: 7
Late Woodland Archeology at the Parkline Site (46PU99) Putnam County, West Virginia
Jonathan P. Kerr, Richard W. Yerkes, Gary D. Crites, Albert M. Pecora and Robert B. Hand. Edited by Charles M. Niquette and Myra A. Hughes.
The Parkline site (46PU99) was the first of three sites excavated in advance of the Huntington District Corps of Engineers' Winfield Locks and Dam Replacement Project, Putnam County, West Virginia. The site, located on the banks of the Kanawha River, yielded important data on life during the Late Woodland period. Two different temporally and spatially discrete occupations were documented; the earliest, a Childers phase use of the site area, occurred during the early Late Woodland ca. A.D. 400. It was reflected by a compact cluster ofthermal features and a number of storage/refuse pits. A Parkline phase component, defined for the first time in this report, dated to ca. A.D. 900. This occupation was represented by numerous thermal features, including large, rock-filled earth ovens. Both occupations reflectcultural intrusions into the lower Kanawha Valley by small, highly mobile groups. The origins ofthe latter occupation probably lie in the northeast and\or the Atlantic seaboard. The Childers Phase occupation is most likely associated with populations living in the Scioto Valley of Ohio.
CRAI PUB NO: 90-93 PAGES: 304 FIGURES: 41 TABLES: 41 PLATES: 4
Myra A. Hughes, Jonathan P.Kerr and Albert M. Pecora. With contributions by Gary D. Crites and Richard M. Yerkes Editedby Myra A. Hughes and Charles M. Niquette
Situated on a very high, alluvial sand ridge along the Kanawha River, the Winfield Locks Site(46PU4) consisted of a dispersed pattern of thermal and non-thermal features below the plowzone. Archeological remains recovered at the site suggest a continuing use of the localityfrom the Early Archaic through the Fort Ancient periods. The greatest use of the site cameduring the Late Archaic (4,000-1,500 B.C.), Early Woodland (1,500-400 B.C.) and early LateWoodland (A.D. 400-750) periods. The Late Archaic and Early Woodland remains were concentrated at the eastern end of the site. Features associated with these periods included hearths, earth ovens and storage pits. The site probably functioned as a short-term extractive camp during these periods. The presence of storage pits suggested that the site was revisited inorder to exploit the stored subsistence remains. A new provisional Early Woodland ceramicseries, Half- Moon Cordmarked var. Winfield, was defined as a result of these excavations. The early Late Woodland occupations were concentrated at the western end of the site and they were representative of the Childers phase. Features associated with this time period were predominantly hearths and shallow basins. Evidence for possible oval structures was also expressed in this area of the site. The site may have been occupied on a long-term basis during this period although the data are not equivocal. The data derived from Winfield Locks contribute to our understanding of Late Archaic, Early Woodland and early Late Woodland subsistence andsettlement patterns in the lower Kanawha River Valley.
CRAI PUB NO:92-81 PAGES: 375 FIGURES: 98 TABLES: 37 PLATES: 11
Jonathan P. Kerr, Myra A. Hughes, Robert B. Hand, and CharlesM. Niquette, with a contribution by Dee Anne Wymer. Edited by Charles M. Niquette.
Phase III excavations at the Graham site (15LA222) in Lawrence County, Kentucky exposed a stratified site occupied from the Middle Archaic to the Late Woodland periods. While the Middle Archaic and Late Woodland components were represented by little more than a few projectile points, the Late Archaic and Adena occupations were far more substantial. Excavation of the Late Archaic zone revealed evidence of hearths and a lithic assemblage dominated by hunting implements. It was interpreted as a repeatedly occupied, transient camp. Adena, as the term is used in this report, spans the period between 500 B.C. and A.D. 200 and generally fits within the Middle Woodland period (circa 400 B.C. to A.D. 400). A Middle Woodland settlement system model was proposed in an effort to place the Middle Woodland use of Graham within a larger, regional context. The fact that the Adena occupation at Graham was domestic as opposed to ritual or ceremonial makes the site relatively unique for the larger Middle Ohio Valley drainage. The features belonging to this time period included both hearths and storage pits. In addition to hunting and nut gathering, a limited amount of gardening may have taken place at the site. This was indicated by possible cultigens, which included sumpweed and squash rind, recovered from the Middle Woodland features. A stratified sequence of pottery types was indicated by the analysis of the ceramic material recovered from Graham. As a result of this analysis, Graham Roughened, a new provisional ceramic type, and Johnson Plain var. Yatesville, a new provisional variety, were defined for the first time. Absolute datesobtained from the site suggest that these date to about 300 B.C. and 100 B.C., respectively.
R. Berle Clay, Charles M. Niquette, Randall D. Boedy, R. Berle Clay, Myra A.Hughes, Matthew M. Walters, Gerald Oetelaar and Dee Anne Wymer. Edited by R. Berle Clayand Charles M. Niquette.
The Niebert site (46MS103) was one of several sites excavated in advance of the Huntington District Corps of Engineers' Gallipolis Locks and Dam Replacement Project, Mason County, West Virginia. Located on a first terrace levee of the Ohio River floodplain, theNiebert site yielded important evidence of use by Late Archaic, Middle Woodland (Adena) and Late Woodland peoples. The Late Archaic and Late Woodland use of the site was represented by a diffuse scatter of thermal features believed to represent cooking facilities. In addition, a number of storage facilities also contained Late Woodland materials. Both occupations probably occurred over a period of time by small groups of people, but neither occupation was particularly intensive or long-term. Middle Woodland use of the site can best be characterized as amortuary camp. It was represented by a series of rigidly formal, circular, paired post structures and only a very few features. Two of the features were secondarily deposited cremations. Niebert's circular structures are the first well documented Adena structures to be found apart from mound contexts in the Ohio Valley. Despite this, they have been linked with mortuary activity carried out and completed at mound sites situated nearby.
CRAI PUB NO: 89-06 PAGES: 272 FIGURES: 22 TABLES: 30 PLATES: 0
Charles M.Niquette, Dee Anne Wymer, Jonathan P. Kerr, Myra A. Hughes, Robert B. Hand and Gregory A.Sheldon. Edited by Charles M. Niquette and Jonathan P. Kerr.
The Dow Cook site (15LA4) is located in northeastern Kentucky in the Blaine Creek valley, a minor tributary of the Big Sandy river. The site is situated on the floodplain at thejuncture of Big Branch and Brushy Creek, directly south of the intersection of Brushy Creek and the larger Blaine Creek. The site was excavated in 1987 by Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc. as part of the Yatesville Reservoir project for the Huntington District Corps of Engineers. The excavations revealed an extensive series of features and a portion of an intact midden below the plowzone. Many thermal features were present and most contained evidence of intensive burning, charcoal and rock clusters. Larger pits indicative of long term storage and refuse disposal were not encountered during excavations. The Dow Cook site was used/occupied from the Middle Archaic through Late Woodland; however, the majority of the artifacts indicate that the most intensive use of the site occurred during the Middle Woodland to early Late Woodland periods. This was substantiated by two uncorrected radiocarbon dates, A.D. 530 and A.D. 570, obtained from a thermal pit that contained a reconstructible ceramic vessel. This vessel provided the basis for creating a new provisional ceramic type for the region, Blaine Cordmarked. Three alternative site interpretations were postulated: (1) Dow Cook represents a series of overlapping, temporary camps used by transient groups, (2) Dow Cook represents a multicomponent site, but it is primarily a late Middle to early Late Woodland hamlet, and (3) Dow Cook is a multicomponent site that was used most extensively during the Late Archaic and Middle to Late Woodland, but historic agricultural practices have severely disturbed the site's structure and spatial patterning of artifacts and features. The last interpretation seems to have the most validity; although, its acceptance does not preclude theother alternatives.
CRAI PUB NO: 89-04 PAGES: 211 FIGURES: 25 TABLES: 34 PLATES: 0
Charles M. Niquette, Randall D. Boedy and Jonathan P. Kerr with contributionsby Kristen J. Gremillion and Paula Cross. Edited by Charles M. Niquette.
Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc. conducted phase II assessments of 13 prehistoric sites located within the boundaries of the Yatesville Reservoir, Lawrence County, Kentucky. This total included seven rockshelters, five open sites, and one site that consisted of a series of small "field clearing" rock piles. Temporal components at these sites spanned the Early Archaic through the Historic periods, although the Late Archaic and Late Woodland are best represented. The report documents the objectives, methods and results of the National Register Evaluations at these sites.
CRAI PUB NO: 87-12 PAGES: 180 FIGURES: 45 TABLES: 21
Robert A. Genheimer and Elisabeth H. Tuttle
An historical assessment and archeological evaluation of nine historic sites in the proposed Yatesville Reservoir was completed between November 1986 and February 1987. Six sites (15LA11, LA42, LA67, LA223, LA228, and LA252) had been recommended for this assessment by Niquette and Donham (1985:381). Three others (15LA253, the Goble House, and the Hutchison House) were recommended for inclusion in this study by the United States Army Corps of Engineers in consultation with the Kentucky State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO). Historical data indicated that four sites originated prior to 1850. Two sites, 15LA67 and LA223, were settled as early, or earlier than 1828. Site 15LA252 may date to as early as 1829, and the Goble House may date to as early as 1840; both of the latter dates are estimations. Three historic sites date to the 1850's. Site 15LA228 and the Hutchison House were likely constructed around 1850. 15LA253, the only site retaining standing structures, was probably constructed in 1856. 15LA42 was settled about 1873. One site, 15LA11, was constructed as late as 1880. Two sites, 15LA11 and LA42, were not recommended for additional archaeological work. The remaining sites were judged to be archaeologically significant; further archaeological work would likely produce valuable data on site functions, economy, and nineteenth century human behavior.
CRAI PUB NO: 87-00 PAGES: 108 FIGURES: 16 TABLES: 36 PLATES: 4
Robert A. Genheimer
The Mandel Site (46MS150) was discovered in August of 1987 during a geomorphological study of the Gallipolis Locks and Dam Replacement Project, Mason County, West Virginia. Buried archeological materials were discovered at a depth of 2.10 to 2.25 meters below ground surface over an area that included 6,125 square meters. Charcoal samples recovered from threedifferent backhoe trenches that were widely separated across the site suggested that this buriedcomponent dated to very late in the Late Archaic period, approximately 2000 B.C. Subsequentinvestigation of the site revealed a low density occupation zone(s) that contained fire-cracked rock, charcoal and a number of small, poorly defined thermal features. The recovery of temporally diagnostic projectile points, chipped stone tools, and lithic debitage was extremely low and virtually no food remains were recovered. The lithic assemblage that was recovered suggested that initial reduction, tool shaping, and tool maintenance took place at the site. Based upon the artifacts recovered, the nature of the features encountered and the geomorphological information gathered at the site, it appears that the Mandel site represents a series of ephemeral camps used by Late Archaic peoples in transit, presumably moving from place-to-place up and down the Ohio River Valley.
CRAI PUB NO: 88-24 PAGES: 20 FIGURES: 7 TABLES: 2 PLATES: 0
Phase III Excavations of the Kirk (46MS112) and Newman Mounds (46MS110), Gallipolis Locks and Dam Replacement Project, Mason County, West Virginia
Charles M. Niquette, R. Berle Clay and Matthew M.Walters with contributions by Thomas E. Fouts and Mary Lucas Powell.
Between May and August, 1987, Cultural Resource Analysts' personnel completed phase III excavations of the Kirk and Newman Mound (46MS112 and 46MS110, respectively) in the Gallipolis Locks and Dam Replacement Project, Mason County, West Virginia. The Kirk Mound had been subject to many years of cultivation and consisted of little more than an imperceptible rise on the second terrace prior to excavation. Field work completed at the site resulted in the discovery of a prepared floor beneath the mound and a single human burial that appeared to have been burned in place. In contrast, the Newman Mound was situated in a nearby fence row and had been protected from the damaging effects of plowing. Nevertheless, vandalism, burrowing rodents, and root activity had taken their toll on the mound. A single, secondarily deposited cremation was discovered beneath the first of two stages of mound construction. Radiocarbon assays from both mounds are tenuous at best. These suggest that both mounds date from about 350 to 200 B.C. This report includes a reconstruction of activities at Kirk and Newman as these relate to other local sites, and particularly to the Niebertsite which is located in close proximity to the two mounds. The three sites may constitute a mortuary system of interactive parts for the local Middle Woodland community.
CRAI PUB NO: 88-11 PAGES: 132 FIGURES: 12 TABLES: 13 PLATES: 0
Charles M. Niquette, Elisabeth H. Tuttle and Gerald Oetelaar.
Located along the Ohio River in Mason County, West Virginia, the Niebert site (46MS103) included the rural house site of William Payne Hale. The archival data suggested that Hale may have lived on the property, at least intermittently, between1810 and 1817. After the arrival of his wife and family in Mason County about 1817, heestablished a household in Point Pleasant. Hale suffered more than a decade of financialproblems and about 1832, he and his family moved from Point Pleasant to the house he hadbuilt 20 years earlier along the banks of the Ohio River. They lived there in Mercer's Bottom until the property was sold in 1836. The house disappeared from the tax lists thereafter. The data suggest that the Niebert site's historic component represents a rural, domestic residence that was occupied during the fourth decade of the nineteenth century. The total lack of creamware in the ceramic assemblage supports this temporal assessment and is consistent with the mean ceramic dates. The quantity of material recovered is quite low, most likely the result of post-depositional forces. On the other hand, the diversity of material recovered tends to be relatively high even though the assemblage generally lacks matched sets of dishes. The value of the assemblage, relative to undecorated creamware, is relatively low, indicative of a lower middle class to lower class ceramic assemblage. The data demonstratethat the Niebert site assemblage belongs to the lower end of the economic scale and suggest at least two possibilities. It is possible that the excavated site is not Hale's at all, but rather is occupational refuse left by one or more of his slaves or tenants. Alternatively, the site may represent Hale's 1832-1837 occupation and his declining prosperity at that time. In either case, there are no data that suggest that the Niebert site assemblage is thatof the early and financially stable Hale.
CRAI PUB NO: 88-10 PAGES: 68 FIGURES: 13 TABLES: 15 PLATES: 0
Randall D. Boedy and Charles M.Niquette, with contributions by Rolfe Mandel and Thomas W. Gatus.
The Danville Tank site (15BO16), located in south central Kentucky, was excavated in April and May of 1986. Situated on top of the first range of dome-shaped hills that mark the transition between the Outer Bluegrass and Knobs physiographic regions, the site also straddled an upland divide between the Salt and Kentucky River drainages. The artifact assemblage recovered indicated a multicomponent occupation ranging from Early Archaic (possibly Paleo- Indian) through the Late Prehistoric periods; however, the most intensive use of the site occurred during the Late Archaic and Early Woodland. The Late Archaic component(s) present appeared to be closely related to the Central Ohio Valley Archaic phasewhich dates from 2,500 B.C. to about 1,750 B.C. Despite the damaging effects of pedogenic, geomorphologic and cultural processes (no evidence of vertically stratified horizons could bediscerned), computer-assisted analysis of artifact distributions at the site revealed that horizontal stratigraphy had been preserved. Investigation of the Danville Tank site included achert source analysis study. While this effort demonstrated a reliance on local raw materials italso revealed the preferential selection of certain cherts for specific tool forms. It is suggestedthat this might have been due to two separate imbedded subsistence strategies and possibly a sexual division of labor.
CRAI PUB NO: 87-07 PAGES: 264 FIGURES: 52 TABLES: 19 PLATES: 0
Charles M. Niquette and Randall D.Boedy.
During November and December 1985, portions of the Calloway Site (15MT8) in Martin County, Kentucky, were excavated in advance of highway construction activities. Mitigation efforts resulted in the recovery of data pertinent to a transitional Early to Middle Woodland period temporary camp.The site appears to have been used for similar purposes by two or more Woodland period groups in transit, perhaps between resource extraction localities. The site's occupation(s) is supported by a series of absolute dates that span the period from about 250B.C. to A.D. 200. Three different pottery types were recovered including Johnson Plain, Inez Plain (defined here for the first time) and an unnamed sand tempered pottery type that appears to be related to Inez Plain. The archeobotanical assemblage recovered from the site is consistent with plant remains recovered from other sites throughout eastern North America that date to the same time period. These include chenopod, maygrass, and a variety of nutspecies.
CRAI PUB NO: 86-12 PAGES: 123 FIGURES: 27 TABLES: 10 PLATES: 11
Robert B. Hand, Jonathan P. Kerr, Myra A. Hughes and Charles M. Niquette with contributions by Dee Ann Wymer and S. Christopher Caran
During May and June, 1988, Cultural Resource Analysts' personnel completed a phase Isurvey of approximately 270 acres and National Register evaluations of two sites, 46PU4 and 46PU5a in the Winfield Locks and Dam Replacement Project, Putnam County, West Virginia. A total of nine prehistoric sites were either relocated or recorded for the first time. These sites contained evidence of all temporal periods; although Late Archaic was dominant at nearly all of the sites examined. Sites 46PU99, 46PU100 and 46PU101 appeared to have the greatest potential to yield important information and were recommended for phase II evaluations. As a result of Phase II testing further work was recommended for 46PU4, it contained intact features, postmolds, and a subsurface midden. Further work at the site will undoubtedly yield important information on Late Archaic and Woodland settlement and subsistence patterns.
CRAI PUB NO: 88-30 PAGES: 254 FIGURES: 19 TABLES: 36.
Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc. completed an archeological evaluation of six properties in the East Main Street Phase II project (FEMS) in the city of Frankfort, Kentucky in April and May of 1988. The properties (100-104 Broadway, 402-404 High, 406-408 High, 410 High, 412 High, and 116 Main), five of which were contained within the Old Statehouse Historic District, had been subjected to a prior historical assessment and archival study by Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc. (Genheimer et al. 1986). Each of the lots were subjected to systematic testing and three of the lots were evaluated with aid of heavy equipment. One lot was subjected to remote conductivity testing, and subsequent soil core analysis. Eleven 1 m x 1 m test units, 31 shovel/auger tests, and 5 backhoe trenches were excavated. Both hand testing and backhoe testing revealed that considerable amounts of fill had been placed during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in the rear of the High Street lots. The only significant feature encountered in the entire project area was recorded in the rear of 116 East Main Street. The base of a relatively small brick-lined, simple updraft beehive pottery kiln was exposed at approximately 65 cm below ground surface. The circular kiln, which measured 3.35 meters in diameter, contained a pair of opposing fire boxes and a system of internal flues. Pottery waste deposits were encountered in numerous units and shovel tests in an approximately 155 square meter area surrounding the kiln location. Both stoneware and earthenware products were manufactured including crocks,jars, bottles, plates, and smoking pipes. Numerous manufacturing and kiln fabric elements were also recovered.
CRAI PUB NO: 88-25 PAGES: 161 FIGURES: 12 TABLES: 29 PLATES: 14
Jonathan P. Kerr, Myra A. Hughes, Robert B. Hand and Charles M.Niquette with contributions by Dee Ann Wymer.
During November, 1988, Cultural Resource Analysts' personnel completed National Register evaluations of three sites in the Winfield Locks and Dam Replacement Project, Putnam County, West Virginia. Each of these, 46PU99, 46PU100, and 46PU101, were prehistoric open sites and contained evidence of occupation from nearly all temporal periods. Despite this, the Late Archaic and Late Woodland components were dominant at all of the sites examined. As a result of phase II testing at 46PU99 and 46PU100, these sites were recommended for further work. Both sites contained discrete scatters of Late Woodland materials and intact features. Further work at these sites will undoubtedly yield important information on Late Woodland settlement and subsistence patterns.
CRAI PUB NO: 89-03 PAGES: 126 FIGURES: 17 TABLES: 21 PLATES: 6
Glen G. Fredlund.
In the fall of 1988, a pollen core was recovered at the Gallipolis Locks and Dam Project Area, Mason County, West Virginia. The pollen core was extracted with a truck- mounted, hollow-stem auger. The pollen core segments were then shipped to the University of Kansas where they were extruded, measured, dissected, and described. The Gallipolis pollen record provides evidence on three topics of importance to regional Holocene vegetational change: 1) the potential migrational time lags of temperate species during the early Holocene, 2) the effect of mid-Holocene altithermal aridity on forest composition, and 3) the role of people in the changing Holocene environments of the central Ohio River Valley.
CRAI PUB NO: 89-01 PAGES: 40 FIGURES: 6 TABLES: 1
Rolfe D. Mandel.
A geomorphological investigation was completed at the Gallipolis Locks and Dam in order to examine late-Quaternary landscapes in the Ohio River Valley. The objectives of this investigation were to (1) describe soils, sedimentology and stratigraphy at six archeological sites, (2) determine the number of alluvial terraces in the project area, (3) establish the relative and absolute numerical ages of terrace fills, (4) construct an alluvial chronology for a section of the Ohio River Valley drainage system and (5) develop a model of late-Quaternary landscape evolution that may be used to predict the locations of buried archeological sites in the Ohio River Valley. The geomorphological investigation provided data that may be used to interpret the archeological record and to guide future cultural resource management studies in the middle Ohio River Valley.
CRAI PUB NO: 88-38 PAGES: 65 FIGURES: 8 TABLES: 6
Phase II & Specialized Projects
Phase II Investigations at the Skaggs (15LA11), Carter (15LA228) and Wellman (15LA67) Sites on Blaine Creek in the Proposed Yatesville Reservoir, Lawrence County, Kentucky
Karen M. Redmond and Myra A. Hughes, with contributions by Robert A. Genheimer and Elisabeth M. Tuttle
Between September 9 - 28, 1990, Cultural Resource Analysts' personnel completed phase II archeological investigations at three historic sites (15LA11, 15LA228 and 15LA67) in the proposed Yatesville Reservoir, Lawrence County, Kentucky. Field methods used at these sites included a combination of plowing followed by intensive surface collection of artifacts, shovel testing, the excavation of test units and limited use of heavy machinery. Investigations at the Skaggs (15LA11) and Wellman (15LA67) sites produced intact subsurface deposits and features. Both the Skaggs and Wellman sites meet the minimum criteria for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places. Testing at the Carter site (15LA228) demonstrated that historic materials were confined to the plowzone, and no features or midden were encountered. An historic background of Lawrence County and site specific histories are included in the report.
CRAI PUB NO: 91-111 PAGES: 135 FIGURES: 19 TABLES: 24 PLATES: 5
Karen M. Redmond, Myra A. Hughes and Elisabeth H. Tuttle
On October 1 through October 10, 1990 Cultural Resource Analyst's personnel completed phase II archeological investigations at the Luckett Farmstead (15MN46) and the Carrico site (15MN49) in the proposed Fagan Branch Dam and Reservoir, Marion County, Kentucky. The Luckett Farmstead consisted of a residence and numerous outbuildings. Archival research revealed that the farmstead was inhabited by the Luckett family and their descendants continually from 1837 through 1962. The Carrico site consisted of a multi-component prehistoric lithic scatter located approximately 1/4 mile south of the Luckett Farmstead. Field methods used at both sites included a combination of plowing followed by intensive surface collection of artifacts, shovel testing, the excavation of test units and limited use of machine assisted scraping.
CRAI PUB NO: 90-109 PAGES: 85 FIGURES: 6 TABLES: 12 PLATES: 12
Jonathan P. Kerr and Albert M. Pecora, III
Between June 18 and 22, 1990 Cultural Resource Analysts' personnel completed a phase II National Register evaluation of site 15PI49 in advance of a proposed coal mining operation along the northern slope of Flatwoods Mountain in southeastern Pike County, Kentucky. The testing proved that this mountain top site was a single component late Late Woodland/Late Prehistoric site. Artifacts recovered included triangular projectile points, prehistoric ceramics and chert flakes. Twenty- six auger holes and fourteen square m of test unit excavations were completed. Artifacts were restricted to the humic, O horizon that ranged from 20 - 30 cm in depth, and no features were encountered. A technological analysis of lithic artifacts recovered yeilded important information regarding the behavior of the site's inhabitants. Based on the results of this study, it appeared that the site was occupied for a short period of time during which the inhabitants were engaged in the production of new tools. The high quality and variability of the chert, and the extensive resharpening of formed artifacts indicated that the inhabitants of this site were somewhat "chert poor." It appeared that a direct pattern of raw material procurement was not an objective. Instead, during highly mobile activities, chert sources were encountered and quarried as needed. As observed from the condition of the projectile points extensive economizing measures were carried out to make the most out of the lithic sources. These points were reworked and resharpened until no further feasible reduction could be achieved. It is likely that during stop-overs or camps, the hunters discarded these worn out objects and fashioned new tools, making use of their stored blanks. Once new points were made, the hunters abandoned the camp.
CRAI PUB NO: 90-72 PAGES: 70 FIGURES: 9 TABLES: 12
Jonathan P. Kerr, Myra A. Hughes and Elisabeth H. Tuttle
On June 4 through June 6, 1990 Cultural Resource Analysts' personnel completed phase II archeological investigations at the Adams Farmstead (15LA254) along the floodplain of Blaine Creek, Lawrence County, Kentucky. The Adams Farmstead consisted of two residences and numerous outbuildings. One residence (designated the Old House, 15LA254B) was reported by an informant, George Adams, to have been built in the early-19th century. It was located on a remnant levee of Blaine Creek in front of a newer structure (designated the New House, 15LA254A) that was built in the mid-19th century. Both of these houses were probably constructed after 1848 by William Adams who first purchased the land in that year. An ephemeral prehistoric component was also present at the location of the Old House. Field methods used consisted of intensive surface collecting, power auguring and excavating test units. In addition to archeological investigations, archival and informant interviewing was undertaken, and the results are presented in the report.
CRAI PUB NO: 90-66 PAGES: 64 FIGURES: 6 TABLES: 11 PLATES: 6
Myra A. Hughes and Charles M. Niquette
Between June 3 and July 14, 1989, Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., in collaboration with the West Virginia Archeological Society, completed the fieldwork for an archeological survey in Cabell County. The survey was conducted at the request of the Cabell County Historic Landmarks Commission who had received a grant from the State Historic Preservation Office.
There were three stages involved in the completion of the survey; 1) relocation and evaluation of all previously recorded sites in Cabell County; 2) location and evaluation of previously known, but unrecorded, sites; and 3) a 600 acre systematic pedestrian survey. The survey areas were selected with respect to their soil types and their potential for yielding archeological sites. As a result of this project, 20 sites, which had been previously known but unrecorded, were located and formally recorded. Additionally, thirteen new sites were recorded during the 600 acre survey. The project resulted in the formulation of a revised site/soil index for Cabell County. The revised index appeared to corroborate the original findings of Maslowski and Hatton's (1987) model for predicting the probability of finding archeological sites on certain soil types. Nearly all of the previously recorded sites were relocated and evaluated. This report lists and summarizes all available data for all recorded sites in Cabell County, West Virginia.
CRAI PUB NO: 90-62 PAGES: 62 FIGURES: 3 TABLES: 21
Myra A. Hughes and Jonathan P. Kerr with contributions by Robert Sawrey, Susan E. Long and Mary Lucas Powell.
During June 1989, phase II National Register evaluations were conducted on six archeological sites at the Gallipolis Mitigation Site at Greenbottom, Cabell County, West Virginia. The sites consisted of four prehistoric open sites, 46CB15, 46CB41, 46CB92 and 46CB98, and two open sites with prehistoric and historic components, 46CB100 and 46CB103. This collection of sites spanned the Late Archaic through the late Late Woodland periods, and all but 46CB103 exhibited well developed, artifact rich middens. Human burials were encountered in the early Late Woodland component at 46CB15 and in the Fort Ancient component at 46CB98. Each of these sites, except for 46CB103, were considered eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places either as individual nominations or as a National Register District.
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Myra A Hughes, Charles M. Niquette, Jonathan P. Kerr and Robert B. Hand with contribution by Jack L. Dickinson. Edited by Myra A. Hughes and Charles M. Niquette.
During November, 1988, and April, 1989 Cultural Resource Analyst's personnel completed an archeological study in the Gallipolis Mitigation Site at Greenbottom in Cabell County, West Virginia. A total of 836 acres were subject to pedestrian survey; and as a result, a total of 18 sites were investigated. Of these, three sites had been recorded previously (46CB15, 46CB40, and 46CB41), and fifteen new sites were documented. Of the fifteen new sites, eight were prehistoric, four were historic, and three sites had both historic and prehistoric components. As a result of this study, five prehistoric sites, 46CB15, 46CB41, 46CB92, 46CB98 and 46CB100 and one historic site 46CB103, were recommended for further work in order to assess their eligibility for inclusion in the National Register. In addition, a National Register evaluation was conducted for the historic component at the Jenkins House site (46CB41). Testing at the Jenkins House site produced historic subsurface features, containing chronological and subsistence data demonstrating sound associations. It appeared to meet criterion "d" of the National Register criteria.
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Steven D. Creasman.
The Main Site (15BL35) is one of two sites excavated by Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., along the Cumberland River in the extreme southeast corner of Kentucky, just inside of Cumberland Gap. The investigations at the Main site documented six distinct occupation horizons that dated from as early as ca. 6500 B.C. to a little after 300 B.C. (uncorrected ages). The occupation horizons represented: an Early Archaic horizon characterized by bifurcate base points dating ca. 6500-6000 B.C.; two Late Archaic horizon dominated by points similar to Iddins Undifferentiated Stemmed dating ca. 3900-1900 B.C.; two Early Woodland horizons characterized by a variety of stemmed and lanceolate point forms and dominated by a new pottery series (Pine Mountain) dated from ca. 1000-300 B.C.; and a Middle Woodland horizon characterized by Nolichucky and Greenville points and a new pottery series (Mills) which dates sometime after ca. 300 B.C. The occupation sequence at the Main site shares strong similarities with the cultural/temporal patterns of the Ridge and Valley to the south. Analysis of the data indicated that most of the occupations were residential camps of relatively short duration (7-30 days) occupied during the late fall-early winter. The camps may have been comprised of several, probably related, economic/families units and may have been primarily associated with procurement and processing of game animals. The processing included the dressing and working of the hides. It was during the early portion of the Early Woodland occupation that a significant change took place in the charter of the occupation. Around 1000-900 B.C., the occupations became longer in duration, perhaps for several months, as evidenced by the construction of habitation structures and storage facilities. Late fall-early winter occupation was indicated. The tools associated with these occupations indicated a much broader range of activities were being conducted at the site. The evidence indicated that the site may have functioned as a logistical base camp. After about 700-800 B.C., occupations again appear more characteristic of short-term residential camps occupied during the late fall-early winter.
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For a copy of this report, please contact:
Mr. Doug Lambert
Division of Environmental Analysis
Kentucky Department of Transportation
125 Holm Street, Frankfort, Kentucky 40601